Monosubstituted benzenes are named by ending the name of the substituent in benzene.

benzene nomenclature1

[1] Bromobenzene

[2] Nitrobenzene

[3] Methylbenzene (toluene)

[4] Ethylbenzene

Some monosubstituted derivatives of benzene have widely accepted common names.

benzene2 nomenclature

[5] Benzaldehyde

[6] Benzoic acid

[7] Styrene

[8] Acetophenone


benzene3 nomenclature

[9] Phenol

[10] Methoxybenzene

[11] Aniline

[12] Benzophenone

[13] Toluene

In disubstituted benzenes, the prefixes ortho (1,2-disubstituted benzene), meta (1,3-disubstituted benzene) and para (1,4-disubstituted benzene) are used to indicate the position of the substituents on the ring.

benzene4 nomenclature

[14] o-Dichlorobenzene (1,2-Dichlorobenzene)

[15] m-Bromochlorobenzene (1-Bromo-3-chlorobenzene)

[16] p-Methylnitrobenzene (p-Nitrotoluene)