1) Common names and structural formulas of some carbonyl compounds are given below. Indicate the corresponding name according to IUPAC.

common names carbonyls

[1] Isobutyraldehyde

[2] Glyceraldehyde

[3] Glutaraldehyde

[4] Vanillin

Draw the structure of the following aldehydes and ketones:

1) Ethanal (acetaldehyde)
2) 3-Methylbutanal
3) Benzaldehyde
4) 4-Hydroxycyclohexanecarbaldehyde
5) 3-Hydroxy-4-methyl-5-oxocyclohexanecarbaldehyde
6) 2-Methyl-2,5-octanedione
7) 2,5-Dioxooctanedial
8) 1,3-Cyclohexanedione
9) 3-Methyl-3-pentenal
10) 3-Oxobutanal
11) 3-Hydroxycyclopentanone
12) 4-ethoxy-5-phenyl-3-oxoheptanal

Draw the structure of the acetal that forms when benzaldehyde is heated with 1,2-ethanediol in an acid medium. Write a detailed mechanism that justifies your formation. Describe step by step the hydrolysis of this acetal in an aqueous acid medium.

When formaldehyde is dissolved in 17O-labeled water, it is observed that after a few hours both the formaldehyde hydrate and the formaldehyde have incorporated the 17O-isotope. Suggest a reasonable explanation for this fact.

Using ethanol as the source of all the carbon atoms and the reagents you need, describe an efficient synthesis of each of the following substances:


Using the necessary reagents, indicate the steps that allow the following transformation to be carried out:


From 5-hexenal and o-bromotoluene obtain the following product. enunciado
Additional organic and inorganic reagents may be necessary.

Obtain from 3-chloro-2-methylbenzaldehyde and the necessary reagents enunciado
the following compound: