organic chemistry


The term "organic chemistry" was introduced in 1807 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, to study compounds derived from natural resources. It was believed that compounds related to life possessed a "vital force" that made them different from inorganic compounds, in addition to being he considered impossible the preparation in the laboratory of an organic compound, which had been achieved with inorganic compounds.


Organic chemistry is the scientific discipline that studies the structure, properties, synthesis and reactivity of chemical compounds formed mainly by carbon and hydrogen, which may contain other elements, generally in small amounts such as oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon. .


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organic i

The ORGANIC CHEMISTRY section deals with the following topics:

Alkanes, cycloalkanes, radical halogenation reactions, stereochemistry, Alkenes, alkene reactions, alkynes, allylic systems, Diels Alder reaction, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones, reactions that proceed through enols and enolates, benzene, carboxylic acids, acid derivatives, amines, silicon compounds, phosphorus and sulfur.

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In this section the following advanced organic topics are studied:

1. Natural products
2. Reaction mechanisms
3. Substitution and elimination reactions
4. Organic synthesis.
5. Oxidation reduction reactions

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This section covers the following topics on determining organic structures:

1. Determination of organic compounds
2. Visible-ultraviolet spectroscopy
3. Infrared spectroscopy
4. NMR spectroscopy
5. Mass spectrometry.


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The synthesis of compounds is one of the most important parts of organic chemistry. The first organic synthesis dates back to 1828, when Friedrich Wöhler obtained urea from ammonium cyanate. Since then more than 10 million organic compounds have been synthesized from simpler compounds, both organic and inorganic.

Access the Organic Synthesis section created and maintained by Professor Wilbert Rivera Muñoz


In this section we introduce the basic concepts of heterocyclic chemistry. We will start with the nomenclature according to the Hantzsch-Widman system, to continue with the study of the most relevant heterocyclic systems, pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline, pyrrole, thiophene, furan and indole.

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The pKa is defined as -logKa, and indicates the degree of acidity of the hydrogens of an organic compound.

A hydrogen is all the more acid the lower its pKa.

The list begins with the compounds with the lowest acidity, the highest pKa, such as alkanes (pKa = 50). The hydrogens with respect to esters, amides, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones... present an intermediate acidity with pKa values ​​between 20 and 30. The protonated species have hydrogens with negative pKas, reaching values ​​below -10 .

Molecular models are of great importance in organic chemistry, helping to predict properties and reactivity of organic compounds.
Here you will find models of organic compounds (balls, rods, surfaces), visualized using jmol , an interactive application programmed in java.

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Determination of the structure of an organic compound of formula C 6 H 10 O from its NMR and infrared spectra.




I have created this new channel specifically for organic chemistry, so the content will not be mixed with other subjects.

In it we will deal with the typical topics of general organic chemistry as well as topics of advanced organic and heterocycles. I hope you find it useful to prepare organic chemistry courses.

German Fernandez.


Molecular editors are computer programs designed to draw molecules and reactions. They are essential to be able to express themselves in organic chemistry, allowing to write reactions and mechanisms.

There are two molecular editors whose features stand out from the rest: ACD/ChemSketch and ChemDraw.

Android applications that you can download on Google Play


Organic Chemistry: application that contains a large part of the content shown on this website

Organic Chemistry Nomenclature: application with theory and interactive exercises to name organic compounds.