Organic Chemistry Reactions

The reduction of aldehydes and ketones to alkanes via the corresponding hydrazone or semicarbazone under basic conditions and strong heating is called the Wolff-Kishner reduction.
The reaction is carried out in solvents with high boiling points 180-200°C (ethylene glycol). Substrates with ester and amide groups are hydrolyzed to the corresponding acids. Strongly hindered carbonyls are reduced more slowly. In the case of a,b-unsaturates, hydrazine condenses to give pyrazolidines.
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In 1979, Yamaguchi et al. developed a procedure to obtain esters and lactones under mild conditions through alcoholysis of the corresponding mixed anhydride.
The formation of a lactone starts from the treatment of the hydroxy acid with 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine, necessary to neutralize the hydrochloric acid released at this stage. The mixed anhydride produced is treated with DMAP in toluene, under high dilution conditions, yielding the desired lactone.
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In 1855, Wurtz treated alkyl halides with sodium metal to obtain the corresponding symmetrical alkane. 3 carbons belonging to alkyl or aryl halides by treatment with sodium metal is known as Wurtz synthesis. On the other hand, the coupling of an alkyl halide with an aryl halide is called a Wurtz-Fittig reaction.
1. Homocoupling of bromoethane to yield butane
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