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Carbohydrates: Formation of hemiacetals.
Haworth projection. Mutarotation. Fehling and Tollens oxidation Oxidation with HIO 4 . Oxidation with Br 2 /H 2 O. Oxidation with O 2 /Pt. Reduction with NaBH 4 . Osazone formation. Addition to hydroxyl groups. Protection of hydroxyl groups. Wohl and Ruff degradation. Synthesis of Kiliani-Fisher Disaccharides. Amino acids and peptides: isoelectric pH. HVZ synthesis. Gabriel's synthesis. Strecker synthesis. Peptide synthesis

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Tools to determine a mechanism: Identify intermediates. Isotopic labeling.
Product stereochemistry. Solvent effect. Kinetic data: Kinetic equations.
Consecutive reactions. Nitration of benzene Arrhenius theory. Transition state theory. competitive reactions. Curtin-Hammet principle. Hammond principle. Isotope effect: Secondary isotope effect.

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Reaction of azo compounds
VeroRCamacho 5 months 3 weeks before
Concepts in SN2: Stereochemistry.
Solvent. Nucleophile and nucleophobic. Substrate structure. Concepts in SN1: Stereochemistry.
Solvent. Substratum. anchimeric assistance. Nonclassical carbocations. Elimination reactions: Elimination 1.4. Elimination 1.1. Elimination 1.3. Fragmentation. E1 (Unimolecular elimination). E2 (bimolecular elimination). E1cb. Stereochemistry of elimination reactions. Regiochemistry of elimination reactions. pyrolytic removals. Elimination of Hofmann and Cope

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Formation of single bonds: Alkylation of enamines.
Imines and lithiated enamines. Stereoselective alkylation. aldol condensation. Michael and Robinson. Claisen condensation. Acetylacetic and malonic synthesis. Formation of dianions. Umpolung reactions. Formation of double bonds: Pyrolysis of esters.
Elimination of Cope. Hofmann elimination. Sulfoxide removal. Sulfoxide-sulfenate rearrangements. Wittig reactions. Wittig. Wadsword-Emmons. Horner-Wittig. Peterson. Sulfur ylides. Shapiro. Diels-Alder: Regiochemistry.
Carbenes and radicals: Synthesis of carbenes: Elimination 1,1.
Decomposition of diazo compounds.
Decomposition of tosylhydrazones. Reactivity of carbenes: Cyclopropanation.
Simmons-Smith reaction. CH insert. Arndt-Eistern. Hofmann and wolf transposition.

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Oxidation of benzylic H.
Oxidation of H. allylics. Oxidation of alcohols: chromic.
manganese dioxide. Alkoxysulfonium salts. Swern oxidation. Oppenaver oxidation Olefin oxidation: Prevost reaction.
Woodward's reaction. Alkene epoxidation. Epoxy opening. ozonolysis. Oxidation with periodic acid. Oxidation of ketones: Oxidation to alpha-hydroxyketones.

Reduction reactions: Acyloinic condensation. Non-metallic hydrides. Clemmensen. Wolff-kishner. thioacetals Alkynes with Na/NH3. Birch reduction. Obtaining 1,2-symmetrical diols

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Advanced Organic Chemistry

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